Following a long, successful career as a film actor and mayor, Joseph Estrada attained the highest office in the Philippines in 1998. His administration was characterized by plunder and corruption. In 2000 there were an increasing number of demonstrations against the president. On July 27, the day on which President Estrada gave his State of the Nation address to the Senate and the Congress, various left-wing organizations protested. After the police had swept the demonstrators from the streets they began to throw away the banners they had left. A few of these were able to be saved for the IISH collection.