Conducts research and collects data on the global history of labour, workers, and labour relations

Bonus for Ship's Surgeon

22 December 1852
Landing at Melbourne (1840) Watercolour by W. Liardet, State Library of Victoria

The Ticonderoga, a clipper carrying 646 Scottish and Irish emigrants, arrived in Melbourne, Australia on 22 December 1852. On this horrifc voyage, 100 emigrants were buried at sea and another 68 died while the ship lay in quarantine. Typhus and scarlatina were the major culprits. An official commission of enquiry did not blame the ship's surgeon, dr Sanger. The surgeon and his assistant 'had been unable to enforce the discipline to keep the ship clean and healthy' due to the sheer volume of emigrants and their 'repugnance to cleanliness and fresh air which distinguishes certain classes of the labouring population'. The surgeon was paid a bonus on top of his gratuity for his attendance of the sick while the ship was in quarantine.

Robin Haines, Doctors at Sea. Emigrant Voyages to Colonial Australia ( 2005)  29-31