Conducts research and collects data on the global history of labour, workers, and labour relations

Triangular Migrations

19 December 1961
Lt Col Sucha Singh, CO 1 PARA, of India's Maroon Beret Parachute regiment accepts the surrender of Portuguese forces at a military camp in Bambolim.

On 19 December 1961, the Indian army under the presidency of Nehru began operations resulting in the annexation of the Portuguese colony Goa on the Indian continent. This sparked off a wave of 'Indo-Portuguese' migration from Goa to another Portuguese colony: Mozambique, Africa. The Goan immigrants were highly educated and skilled. Fourteen years later, during the tumultuous events surrounding Mozambique's independence from Portuguese colonial rule in 1975, many elderly Goans once again packed their belongings and left Mozambique to retire in Portugal. Fewer Goans chose too return to their 'homeland', perhaps because they felt even further displaced from it than from Portugal.

Read more? Pamila Gupta, 'Portuguese Decolonization and Goan Migration' in: Connecting Seas and Connected Ocean Rims (leiden 2011)